Psychology People Section header


« Return to list of Faculty

Carol Woods

Associate Professor
Quantitative Psychology
Associate Director and Research Scientist
Center for Research Methods and Data Analysis

Ph.D., 2004, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Research Areas: Quantitative Psychology

Related Links
Personal Website

Current Research Interests

Item response theory; differential item functioning; categorical data analysis.

Journal Articles (peer reviewed)

Woods, C.M., & Grimm, K. J. (in press) Testing for nonuniform differential item functioning with multiple indicator multiple cause models. Applied Psychological Measurement.

Sacco, P., Torres, L., Cunningham-Williams, R., & Woods, C.M., & Unick, G. (in press). Differential item functioning of pathological gambling criteria: An examination of gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Journal of Gambling Studies.

Woods, C.M. (in press). DIF testing with an empirical-histogram approximation of the latent density for each group. Applied Measurement in Education.

Woods, C.M. (2011). DIF testing for ordinal items with poly-SIBTEST, the Mantel and GMH tests, and IRT-LR-DIF when the latent distribution is nonnormal for both groups. Applied Psychological Measurement 35, 145-164.

Hambrick, J. P., Rodebaugh, T. L., Balsis, S., Woods, C.M., & Heimberg, R. G. (2010). Cross-ethnic measurement equivalence of measures of depression, social anxiety, and worry. Assessment 17, 155-171.

Woods, C.M. (2009). Testing for differential item functioning with measures of partial association. Applied Psychological Measurement, 33, 538-554.

Woods, C.M., Oltmanns, T. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2009). Illustration of MIMIC-Model DIF Testing with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 320-330.

Olatunji, B. O., Woods, C.M., de Jong, P. J., Teachman, B. A., Sawchuk, C. N., & David, B. (2009). Development and initial validation of an abbreviated Spider Phobia Questionnaire using item response theory. Behavior Therapy, 40, 114-130.

Woods, C.M. (2009). Consistent small-sample variances for six gamma-family measures of ordinal association. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 44, 525-551.

Woods, C.M., & Lin, N. (2009). Item response theory with estimation of the latent density using Davidian curves. Applied Psychological Measurement, 33, 102-117.

Woods, C.M. (2009). Evaluation of MIMIC-model methods for DIF testing with comparison to two-group analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 44, 1-27.

Woods, C.M. (2009). Empirical selection of anchors for tests of differential item functioning. Applied Psychological Measurement, 33, 42-57.

Woods, C.M. (2008). Likelihood-ratio DIF testing: Effects of nonnormality. Applied Psychological Measurement, 32, 511-526.

Woods, C.M. (2008). Ramsay-curve item response theory for the 3PL item response model. Applied Psychological Measurement, 32, 447-465.

Woods, C.M. (2008). IRT-LR-DIF with estimation of the focal-group density as an empirical histogram. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 571-586.

Woods, C.M. (2008). Consequences of ignoring guessing when estimating the latent density in item response theory. Applied Psychological Measurement, 32, 371-384.

Woods, C.M. (2008). Monte Carlo evaluation of two-level logistic regression for assessing person fit. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 43, 50-76.

Woods, C.M. (2008). Correction to results about confidence intervals for Spearman's rs. Psychological Methods, 13, 72-73.

Woods, C.M., Oltmanns, T. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2008). Detection of aberrant responding on a personality scale in a military sample: An application of evaluating person fit with two-level logistic regression. Psychological Assessment, 20, 159-168.

Balsis, S., Woods, C.M., Gleason, M. E. J., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2007). Overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of personality disorders in older adults. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 742-753.

Brown, P. J., Woods, C.M., & Storandt, M. (2007). Model stability of the 15-item geriatric depression scale across cognitive impairment and severe depression. Psychology and Aging, 22, 372-379.

Woods, C.M. (2007). Confidence intervals for gamma-family measures of ordinal association. Psychological Methods, 12,185-204.

Woods, C.M. (2007). Ramsay-curve IRT for Likert-type data. Applied Psychological Measurement, 31, 195-212.

Woods, C.M. (2007). Empirical histograms in IRT with ordinal data. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67,73-87.

Rodebaugh, T. L., Woods, C.M., & Heimberg, R. G. (2007). The Reverse of social anxiety is not always the opposite: The reverse-scored items of the social interaction anxiety scale do not belong. Behavior Therapy, 38, 192-206.

Lee, B. R., McMillen, J.C., Knudsen, K., & Woods, C.M. (2007). Quality directed activities and barriers to quality in social service organizations. Administration in Social Work, 31, 67-85.

Balsis, S., Gleason, M. E., Woods, C.M., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2007). An item response theory analysis of DSM-IV personality disorder criteria across young and older age groups. Psychology and Aging, 22, 171-185.

Woods, C.M. (2006). Ramsay-curve item response theory to detect and correct for non-normal latent variables. Psychological Methods, 11, 253-270.

Woods, C.M. (2006). Careless responding to reverse-worded items: Implications for confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 3, 189-194.

Woods, C.M., & Thissen, D. (2006). Item response theory with estimation of the latent population distribution using spline-based densities. Psychometrika, 71, 281-301.

Rodebaugh, T.L., Woods, C.M., Heimberg, R.G., Liebowitz, M.R., & Schneier, F.R. (2006). The Factor structure, item properties, and screening utility of the social interaction anxiety scale. Psychological Assessment, 18, 231-237.

Tolin, D. F., Woods, C.M., & Abramowitz, J. S. (2006). Disgust sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a nonclinical sample. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 37, 30-40.

Vevea, J. L., & Woods, C.M. (2005). Publication bias in research synthesis: Sensitivity analysis using a priori weight functions. Psychological Methods, 10, 428-443.

Woods, C.M., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2005). Factor structures of the original (FNE) and brief (BFNE) fear of negative evaluation scales: Correction to an erroneous footnote. Psychological Assessment, 17,385-386.

*Rodebaugh, T. L., *Woods, C.M., Thissen, D. M., Heimberg, R. G., Chambless, D. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). More information from fewer questions: The factor structure and item properties of the original and brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Psychological Assessment, 16,169-181. *Contributions of the first two authors are equal.

Woods, C.M., Tolin, D. F., & Abramowitz, J. S. (2004). Dimensionality of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 113-125.

Abramowitz, J. S., Deacon, B. J., Woods, C.M., & Tolin, D. F. (2004). Association between protestant religiosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and cognitions. Depression & Anxiety, 20, 70-76.

Tolin, D. F., Woods, C.M., & Abramowitz, J. S. (2003). Relationship between obsessional beliefs and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 657-669.

Deacon, B. J., Abramowitz, J. S., Woods, C.M., & Tolin, D. F. (2003). The anxiety sensitivity index-revised: Psychometric properties and factor structure in two nonclinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1427-1449.

Woods, C.M., Frost, R. O., & Steketee, G. (2002). Obsessive compulsive symptoms and subjective severity, probability, and coping ability estimations of future negative events. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9, 104-111.

Woods, C.M., Vevea, J. L., Chambless, D. L., & Bayen, U. J. (2002). Are compulsive checkers impaired in memory? A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 353-366.

Woods, C.M., Chambless, D.L., & Steketee, G. (2002). Homework compliance and behavior therapy outcome for panic with agoraphobia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 31, 88-95.

Woods, C.M. (2002). Factor analysis of scales composed of binary items: Illustration with the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 215-223

The University of Kansas prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, gender identity, gender expression and genetic information in the University’s programs and activities. The following person has been designated to handle inquiries regarding the non-discrimination policies: Director of the Office of Institutional Opportunity and Access,, 1246 W. Campus Road, Room 153A, Lawrence, KS, 66045, (785)864-6414, 711 TTY.